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Swine vesicular disease (SVD)


  • Family: Picornaviridae, genus: Enterovirus
  • Notifiable Disease: Yes


Pigs - Swine Vesicular Disease  Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a contagious viral disease of pigs. SVD may be clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) en vesicular stomatitis (VS). The differential diagnosis with FMD and VS can be done in the laboratory. Strains of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) vary in virulence, and the disease may be subclinical, mild or severe. SVD is a pen disease that spread by direct contact between pigs or indirectly by contact with contaminated faeces and by swill feeding. The resistance of the virus to inactivation may lead to recrudescence.


Recently only Italy has reported outbreaks of SVD, but the virus is probably present in other parts of the world too.


Diagnosis of the disease is made initially on clinical grounds and subsequently confirmed in the laboratory by classical virological, serological or molecular biological methods. Preferred samples for virus detection are epithelium, vesicular fluid, serum (or EDTA-blood) and faeces (virus isolation, Ag-ELISA, real-time RT-PCR).


Since any vesicular condition in pigs may be foot-and-mouth disease, special precautions must be taken for the safe packaging of suspected samples and the laboratory diagnosis of clinical cases of all vesicular virus diseases should be done within biosecure facilities BSL3.
Blood samples from the suspected pigs and in-contact pigs must be taken for serological testing. Faecal samples from those pigs and from the floor of their pen are necessary.

Vaccines are not available and therefore stamping-out will be applied.




CODA-CERVA is the Belgian National Reference Laboratory for swine vesicular disease.
OIE (World Organisation for Animal health) Collaborating Centre for Validation, Quality Assessment and Quality Control of Diagnostic Assays and Vaccine Testing for Vesicular Diseases in Europe
Specific information for diagnostics (matrix, tests)
- Virus isolation, Ag-ELISA, real-time RT-PCR: epithelium, vesicular fluid, faeces and serum (or EDTA-blood)
- Serology: serum

Development of diagnostic tools and differential diagnosis.

The laboratory has the necessary authorizations and facilities to isolate the virus under safe conditions. The personnel are experienced in serological tests, virus isolation and molecular diagnosis of SVD virus from clinical samples.


Kris De Clercq

David Lefebvre

Ilse de Leeuw
Andy Haegeman

Annebel De Vleeschauwer
Frank Vandensbussche
(mass molecular diagnosis)




- Goris N, Vandenbussche F, De Clercq K. (2008). Potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling RNA viral infections of livestock. Antiviral Res., 78(1):170-8.


- Goris N, De Palma A, Toussaint JF, Musch I, Neyts J, De Clercq K. (2007). 2'-C-Methylcytidine as a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Antiviral Res, 73(3):161-168.


- De Clercq K. (1998). Reduction of singleton reactors against swine vesicular disease virus by a combination of virus neutralisation test, monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA and isotype specific ELISA. Journal of Virological Methods, 70, 7-18.