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Bovine Tuberculosis

Copperplate engraving by André Du Laurens (1558-1609), an anatomist and Paris court physician, showing King Henry IV of France touching a number of scrofula sufferers who are gathered about him in a circle. Legend of the original plate: Des mirabili strumas sanandi vi solis Galliae regibus christianissimis divinitus concessa liber unus. Paris: Apud Marcum Orry, 1609. [xv] 307 (misnumbered 293), [18] pp., fold. Plate. 17.5 Limp vellum.

 

(Mycobacterium bovis, syn. ""Mycobacterium tuberculosis typus bovinus" (Lehmann and Neumann 1907), "Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis" (Bergey 1934), "Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis" (Karlson and Lessel 1970)).

OTHER NAMES :

Tuberculose bovine, Rundertuberculose.


GENERAL INFORMATION :

  • Bacteria (superkingdom); Actinobacteria (Phylum); Actinobacteria (Class); Actinomycetales (Order); Mycobacteriaceae (Family); Mycobacterium (genus); Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (group)
  • Notifiable Disease? YES

 

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that has affected animals and humans since antiquity, that is due to Mycobacterium bovis, a member isolated by Robert Koch in 1882 of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) including various agents of human and animal TB (M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. canettii, M. pinnipedii, M. bovis subsp. caprae, M. microti, M. prototuberculosis, dassie bacillus).Robert Koch

 

Because of its role in human TB meningitis, scrofula, and adult pulmonary TB, and a 40% incidence in cattle at the turn of the XXth century, eradication programs were successfully implemented in most industrialised countries during the 1950's.

 

M. bovis is a slow, fastiduously growing acid-fast bacterium with the widest host spectrum within the MTC, infecting by the respiratory or oral routes human, cattle, swine, cat, dog, goat, horse, sheep, and captive widlife.

sérosite tuberculeuse de la rate par voie lymphatique rétrograde à tubercules caséifiés observée sur un bovin belge de 8 ans. Speel tuberculous serositis in an 8-year old cow. © CODA-CERVA

The infection can remain latent for extended periods. Therefore, although declared officially free of TB, many countries are still dealing today with recurrent outbreaks in cattle.

 

Wildlife reservoirs have emerged in the British Isles, Spain, France, North America and New Zealand and call for increased surveillance.

 

Bovine TB was listed in 2005 by WHO among the top seven neglected zoonosis1.

Control programs are based on meat inspection, intradermal tuberculin tests, isolation and PCR detection, and blood-based laboratory assays such as the ELISA, proliferation assays, and the IFNy assay2.scrofula

1 WHO, WHO/SDE/FOS/2006.1, 2005
2 OIE, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, 2008


ROLE OF CODA-CERVA :

  • DIAGNOSIS :

• Belgian National Reference Laboratory
• Specific information Diagnostics (Matrix, Tests)
Pathological specimens or cultures, for direct PCR-detection (16S) or direct spoligotyping, and for bacteriological isolation, identification and typing ( IS6110-RFLP, Spoligotyping, VNTR)
8H-Old heparinised blood samples for IFNG assay in ruminants and swine, and for LTA assay in all other species.

Serological diagnosis by Elisa

  • EXPERTISE :

• NRL ; member of the Belgian Food Safety Agency Working Group on Bovine Tuberculosis ; yearly communication/training on bovine TB for the AFSCA-FAVV

: lymphadénite caséeuse rayonnante chez un bovin de 2,5 ans. Radial caseous lymphadenitiis in a 2,5 year old cow. © CODA-CERVA


SCIENTIST responsible for this topic :

David Fretin






CODA-CERVA PUBLICATIONS :

2012

-Panaiotov S, Amicosante M, Govaerts M, Bachiyska E, Brankova N, Levterova V, 2012. Diagnostic and Molecular Epidemiology Methods of Mycobacteria. in : Genomics of BSL3 and BSL4 pathogens, Elschner M, Cutler S, Panaiotov S and Butaye P, Eds.

2011

- Welby S, Govaerts M, Maes L, Mennens K, Vanholme L, Hooyberghs J, Van der Stede Y, 2011. Bovine tuberculosis surveillance alternatives in Belgium. Prev Vet Med (accepted)

-  Humblet M.-F., Walravens K., Salandre O., Boschiroli M.L., Gilbert M., Berkvens D., Fauville-Dufaux M., Godfroid J., Dufey J., Raskin A., Vanholme L., Saegerman C. Res Vet Sci. (2011) - Monitoring of the intra-dermal tuberculosis skin test performed by Belgian field practitioners.  (2011) doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.12.004

-Saegerman C., Porter S.R. & Humblet M.-F, 2011. The use of modelling to evaluate and adapt strategies for animal disease control. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 30 (2), 555-569.

2010


- Aagaard C, Govaerts M, Meikle V, Gutiérrez Pabello JA, McNair J, Andersen P, Suarez Güemes F, Pollock J, Espitia C and Cataldi A, 2010. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in herds with different disease prevalence and influence of paratuberculosis infection on PPDB and ESAT-6/CFP10 specificity. Prev Vet Med 96:161-169.


- Humblet MF, Gilbert M, Govaerts M, Fauville-Dufaux M, Walravens K and Saegerman C, 2010. New assessment of bovine tuberculosis risk factors in Belgium based on nationwide molecular epidemiology. J Clin Microbiol 48(8):2802-2808.

-Allix-Béguec C, Fauville-Dufaux M, Stoffels K, Ommeslag D, Walravens K, Saegerman C, Supply P, 2010. Importance of identifying Mycobacterium bovis as a causative agent of human tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 35(3):692-4.

-Humblet MF, Gilbert M, Walravens K, Fauville-Dufaux M, Govaerts M and Saegerman C, 2010. Identification de facteurs de risque de tuberculose bovine: apport de l'épidémiologie moléculaire. Epidemiol Sante Anim. 57: 81-89.

-Humblet M.-F., Gilbert M., Walravens K., Govaerts M., Fauville-Dufaux M., Saegerman C, 2010. Intérêt de l'épidémiologie moléculaire dans l'identification de facteurs de risque de tuberculose bovine. Renc. Rech. Ruminants, 17, 105.

2009

- Humblet M.-F., Walravens K., Salandre O., Boschiroli M.L., Gilbert M., Berkvens D., Fauville-Dufaux M., Godfroid J., Dufey J., Raskin A., Vanholme L., Saegerman C, 2009. Première évaluation et validation des pratiques d'intradermo- tuberculination des vétérinaires praticiens ruraux basées sur un questionnaire d'enquête épidémiologique anonyme. Epidémiol. Santé anim. (accepted).

- Marcotty T, Matthys F, Godfroid J, Rigouts L, Ameni G, Gey van Pittius N, Kazwala R, Muma J, van Helden P, Walravens K, de Klerk LM, Geoghegan C, Mbotha D, Otte M, Amenu K, Abu Samra N, Botha C, Ekron M, Jenkins A, Jori F, Kriek N, McCrindle C, Michel A, Morar D, Roger F, Thys E, van den Bossche P, 2009. Zoonotic tuberculosis and brucellosis in Africa: neglected zoonoses or minor public-health issues? The outcomes of a multi-disciplinary workshop. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 103:401-11.caverne pulmonaire de ramollissement post-primaire chez un lion atteint de tuberculeuse généralisée. Post-primary pulmonary cavity in a lion with advanced generalised TB. Courtesy of J. Godfroid, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science.

- Humblet MF, Boschiroli ML, Saegerman C., 2009. Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified approach. Vet Res. 40(5):50

- Van Rhijn I., Nguyen T.K.A., Michel A., Cooper D., Govaerts M., Cheng T.-Y., van Eden W., Moody D.B., Coetzer K., Rutten V. and Koets A.P., 2009. Low cross-reactivity of T cell responses against lipids from Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium paratuberculosis during natural infection. Eur J Immunol 39(11):3031-3041.

2006

- Aagaard C., M. Govaerts, V. Meikle, A.J. Vallecillo, J.A. Gutierrez-Pabello, F. Suarez-Güemes, J. McNair, A. Cataldi, C. Espitia P. Andersen and J.M. Pollock, 2006. Optimizing antigens for Mycobacterium bovis diagnosis in herds with different disease prevalence: ESAT6/CFP10 mixture has supreme specificity and sensitivity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(12):4326-4335.
- Allix C, Walravens K, Saegerman C, Godfroid J, Supply P, Fauville-Dufaux M, 2006. Evaluation of the epidemiological relevance of variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and comparison of the method with IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 44(6):1951-62.
- Ewer K., P. Cockle, S. Gordon, H. Mansoor, M. Govaerts, K. Walravens, S. Marché, G. Hewinson and M. Vordermeier, 2006. Antigen-mining with iterative genome-screens identifies novel diagnostics for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 13(1):90-97.
- Walravens K., Allix C., Supply P., Rigouts L., Godfroid J., Govaerts M., Portaels F., Dufey J., Vanholme L., Fauville-Dufaux M., Saegerman C., 2006. Dix années d'épidémiologie moléculaire de la tuberculose bovine en Belgique. Epidémiol. Santé anim. 49:103-111.

2002

- Walravens K, Wellemans V, Weynants V, Boelaert F, deBergeyck V, Letesson JJ, Huygen K, Godfroid J, 2002. Analysis of the antigen-specific IFN-gamma producing T-cell subsets in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 84(1-2):29-41.
- Walravens K, Marché S, Rosseels V, Wellemans V, Boelaert F, Huygen K, Godfroid J, 2002. IFN-gamma diagnostic tests in the context of bovine mycobacterial infections in Belgium. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87(3-4):401-6.

1998

- Godfroid J., Walravens K., Wellemans V., Letesson J.-J., 1998. Apport du test Interferon gamma dans la prevention et l'éradication de la tuberculose bovine. Agricontact, juillet-août.

1997

- Godfroid J., Walravens K., Desmecht M., Boelaert F., Czaplicki G., Viatour P, Dufey J, Weynants V., Letesson J.-J., Nduwamahoro E., Traore H., Portaels F. Prevention, eradication and molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Belgium. Proceedings of the VIII Symposium International d'Epidémiologie et d'Economie Vétérinaire, Paris, 8-11 juillet, 1997.