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Bluetongue (BT)

GENERAL INFORMATION :

  • Family: Reoviridae, genus: Orbivirus
  • Notifiable Disease: Yes
IN A FEW LINES :

BluetongueBluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious disease of domesticated as well as wild ruminants that induces variable clinical signs depending on the species and the breed. The disease is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) which is the type species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. BTV is an arbovirus and is only transmitted by certain species of the genus Culicoides.

 

The reliance of BTV upon an arthropod vector that is normally exclusively found in tropical and temperate areas restricted BT for a long time to America, Australia, Africa and some regions of Asia. However, probably due to climatical changes BTV recently spread northwards into the Mediterranean Basin. In the summer of 2006, BTV emerged for the first time in Central-Western Europe and quickly disseminated over large parts of Europe.Bluetongue

 

Over the past decades, various serological (agar gel immunodiffusion, competitive ELISA (cELISA)) and virological (virus isolation, RT-PCR) methods have been described and recognised by the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) as prescribed or alternative tests. The performance characteristics of a cELISA and a real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) as diagnostic tools are well-defined. The analysis of the results is not limited to the typical dichotomised classification of positives and negatives based on a fixed cut-off value (CO), but is extended to serological and molecular profiling through the analysis of frequency distributions.

 

BluetongueInactivated vaccines are available in Europe against a limited number of BTV serotypes and attenuated vaccines based on live modified viruses are available from the South-African producer in Onderstepoort.


ROLE OF CODA-CERVA :

  • DIAGNOSIS

CODA-CERVA is the Belgian National Reference Laboratory for bluetongue.
- specific information for diagnostics (matrix, tests)
- virus isolation on embryonated eggs, real-time RT-PCR: EDTA-blood
- serology: serum

  • RESEARCH

Development and validation of diagnostic tools and virus detection in different matrixes (blood, semen, organs) and different species (domestic, wildlife, Culicoides).

  • EXPERTISE

The laboratory has the necessary authorizations and facilities to isolate the virus under safe conditions. The personnel are experienced in serological tests, virus isolation and molecular diagnosis of BT virus from clinical samples.Bluetongue


TEAM OF SCIENTISTS :

Kris De Clercq

Ilse De Leeuw

Andy Haegeman


 

CODA-CERVA PUBLICATIONS :

 

2013

-  Welby S, Méroc E, Faes C, De Clercq K, Hooyberghs J, Mintiens K, Van der Stede Y (2013). Bluetongue surveillance system in Belgium: a stochastic evaluation of its risk based approach effectiveness. Prev Vet Med. 112(1-2):48-57.

-  Celma CC, Boyce M, van Rijn PA, Eschbaumer M, Wernike K, Hoffmann B, Beer M, Haegeman A, De Clercq K, Roy P. (2013). Rapid Generation of Replication-Deficient Monovalent and Multivalent Vaccines for Bluetongue Virus: Protection against Virulent Virus Challenge in Cattle and Sheep. J Virol. 87(17):9856-64.

- Zanella G, Martinelle L, Guyot H, Mauroy A, De Clercq K, Saegerman C. (2013). Clinical Pattern Characterization of Cattle Naturally Infected by BTV-8. Transbound Emerg Dis., 60(3):231-237.


- Dal Pozzo F, Martinelle L, Thys C, Sarradin P, De Leeuw I, Van Campe W, De Clercq K, Thiry E, Saegerman C. (2013). Experimental co-infections of calves with bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8. Vet Microbiol., 165(1-2):167-72.


- De Leeuw I, Garigliany M, Bertels G, Willems T, Desmecht D, De Clercq K (online ahead of publication). Bluetongue virus RNA detection by real-time RT-PCR in post-vaccination samples from cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Apr 24. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12100. [Epub ahead of print], PMID:23611408

2012

- Leemans J, Raes M, Vanbinst T, De Clercq K, Saegerman C, Kirschvink N. (2012). Viral RNA load in semen from bluetongue serotype 8-infected rams: Relationship with sperm quality. Vet J. 192(3), 304-310.

- Vangeel I, De Leeuw I, Méroc E, Vandenbussche F, Riocreux F, Hooyberghs J, Raemaekers M, Houdart P, Van der Stede Y, De Clercq K (2012). Bluetongue sentinel surveillance program and cross-sectional serological survey in cattle in Belgium in 2010-2011. Prev Vet Med., 106(3-4):235-243.

2011

- Saegerman C., Bolkaerts B., Baricalla C., Raes M., Wiggers L., De Leeuw I., Vandenbussche F., Zimmer JY, Haubruge E., Cassart D., De Clercq K., Kirschvink N. (2011). The impact of naturally-occurring, trans-placental bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection on reproductive performance in sheep. The Veterinary Journal 187, 72-80.


- Vandaele L., Wesselingh W, De Clercq K, De Leeuw I, Favoreel H, Van Soom A, Nauwynck H. (2011).
Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8. Veterinary Research 42(1):14 (1-8).


- Martinelle L, Dal Pozzo F, Sarradin P, De Leeuw I, De Clercq K, Thys C, Ziant D, Thiry E, Saegerman C. (2011). Two alternative inocula to reproduce bluetongue virus serotype 8 disease in calves.
Vaccine, 29(19):3600-3609.


- Garigliany M, De Leeuw I, Kleijnen D, Vandenbussche F, Callens J, Van Loo H, Lebrun M, Saulmont M, Desmecht D, De Clercq K. (2011).
The presence of bluetongue virus serotype 8 RNA in Belgian cattle since 2008. Transbound Emerg Dis. 58, 6, 503-509.

- Vandaele L, De Clercq K, Van Campe W, De Leeuw I, Van Soom A. (2011). Bluetongue virus infection in cattle after transfer of bovine in vivo-derived embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev., 24(1), 168.

2010

- Linden A, Gregoire F, Nahayo A, Hanrez D, Mousset B, Massart AL, De Leeuw I, Vandemeulebroucke E, Vandenbussche F, De Clercq K. Bluetongue virus in wild deer, Belgium, 2005-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 May;16(5):833-6.

- Saegerman C, Mellor P, Uyttenhoef A, Hanon JB, Kirschvink N, Haubruge E, Delcroix P, Houtain JY, Pourquier P, Vandenbussche F, Verheyden B, De Clercq K, Czaplicki G. The most likely time and place of introduction of BTV8 into Belgian ruminants. PLoS One. 2010 Feb 24;5(2):e9405.

- Vanbinst T, Vandenbussche F, Dernelle E, De Clercq K. A duplex real-time RT-PCR for the detection of bluetongue virus in bovine semen. J Virol Methods. 2010,169(1):162-8.

- Pardon B, Steukers L, Dierick J, Ducatelle R, Saey V, Maes S, Vercauteren G, De Clercq K, Callens J, De Bleecker K, Deprez P. (2010). Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Neonatal Calves: An Emerging Syndrome in Europe. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010 Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010, 57(3):135-46

- Vandenbussche F, Vandemeulebroucke E, De Clercq K. Simultaneous detection of bluetongue virus RNA, internal control GAPDH mRNA, and external control synthetic RNA by multiplex real-time PCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;630:97-108.

- Vandemeulebroucke E., De Clercq K., Van der Stede Y, Vandenbussche F. A proposed validation method for automated nucleic acid extraction and RT-qPCR analysis: an example using bluetongue virus. J virol meth, 2010, 165,76-82.

- Van Vaerenbergh B, Koenen F., Pauwels K., Quanten K., Boyen F., De Clercq K., Desmecht D, Thiry J., Herman P. Methology of the biological risk classification of animal pathogens in Belgium. Rev sci tech OIE, 2010,29(3),513-22

2009
- Méroc E, Herr C, Verheyden B, Hooyberghs J, Houdart P, Raemaekers M, Vandenbussche F, De Clercq K, Mintiens K. (2009). Bluetongue in Belgium: episode II. Transbound Emerg Dis. 56(1-2):39-48.

- Dal Pozzo F., De Clercq K., Guyot H., Vandemeulebroucke E., Sarradin P., Vandenbussche F., Thiry E., Saegerman C. (2009). Experimental reproduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 clinical disease in calves. Vet Microbiol., 136(3-4):352-358.

- Vanbinst T, Vandenbussche F, Vandemeulebroucke E, De Leeuw I, Deblauwe I, De Deken G, Madder M, Haubruge E, Losson B and De Clercq K. (2009). Bluetongue Virus Detection by Real-Time RT-PCR in Culicoides Captured During the 2006 Epizootic in Belgium and Development of an Internal Control Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 56, 170-177.

- Makoschey B, Maclachlan J, v Wuijckhuise L, Kirschvink N, dal Pozzo F, Petit H, Kaandorp-Huber C, v Rijn P, Sellal E, Oura C, Boinas F, Cavirani S, de Clercq K, Lucientes J, Meijjes CP, Zientara S, Meyer G, Thiry E. (2009). Bluetongue control in Europe--new challenges and achievements. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. , 122(7-8):314-324.

- Vandenbussche F., De Leeuw I., Vandemeulebroucke E., De Clercq K. (2009). Emergence of bluetongue serotypes in Europe, Part 1: Description and validation of four real-time RT-PCR assays for the genotyping of bluetongue viruses BTV-1, BTV-6, BTV-8 and BTV-11. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 56: 346-354.

- De Clercq K., Mertens P., De Leeuw I., Oura C., Houdart P., Potgieter AC., Maan S., Hooyberghs J., Batten C., Vandemeulebroucke E., Wright IM., Maan N., Riocreux F., Sanders A., Vanderstede Y., Nomikou K., Raemaekers M., Bin-Tarif A., Shaw A., Henstock M., Bréard E., Dubois E., Zientara S., Vandenbussche F. (2009). Emergence of bluetongue serotypes in Europe, Part 2: The occurrence of a BTV-11 strain in Belgium. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 56: 355-361.

- Zientara S., Breard E., Sailleau C., De Clercq K.. Le diagostic de laboratoire de la FCO. In : La fièvre catarrhale ovine, J.M. Gourreau (ed), Guides France Agricole, 2009,136-146.

2008

- Vandenbussche F, Vanbinst T, Verheyden B, Van Dessel W, Demeestere L, Houdart P, Bertels G, Praet N, Berkvens D, Mintiens K, Goris N, De Clercq K. (2008). Evaluation of antibody-ELISA and real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis and profiling of bluetongue virus serotype 8 during the epidemic in Belgium in 2006. Vet Microbiol., 129(1-2):15-27.

- Méroc E, Faes C, Herr C, Staubach C, Verheyden B, Vanbinst T, Vandenbussche F, Hooyberghs J, Aerts M, De Clercq K, Mintiens K. (2008). Establishing the spread of bluetongue virus at the end of the 2006 epidemic in Belgium. Vet Microbiol., 131(1-2):133-44.

- Vercauteren G, Miry C, Vandenbussche F, Ducatelle R, Van der Heyden S, Vandemeulebroucke E, De Leeuw I, Deprez P, Chiers K, De Clercq K. (2008). Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8-Associated Congenital Hydranencephaly in Calves. Transbound Emerg Dis., 55 (7), 293-297.

- Vandenbussche F., Vanbinst T., Vandemeulebroucke E., Goris N., Sailleau C., Zientara S., De Clercq K. (2008). Effect of pooling and multiplexing on the detection of bluetongue virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. J. Vir. Meth., 152, 13-17.

- De Clercq K, De Leeuw I, Verheyden B, Vandemeulebroucke E, Vanbinst T, Herr C, Méroc E, Bertels G, Steurbaut N, Miry C, De Bleecker K, Maquet G, Bughin J, Saulmont M, Lebrun M, Sustronck B, De Deken R, Hooyberghs J, Houdart P, Raemaekers M, Mintiens K, Kerkhofs P, Goris N, Vandenbussche F. (2008). Transplacental infection and immunotolerance induced by a wild type bluetongue virus serotype 8 natural infection. Transbound Emerg Dis., 55, 352-359.

- De Deken G, Madder M, Deblauwe I, De Clercq K, Fassotte C, Losson B, Haubruge E, De Deken R. (2008). Vector monitoring at Belgian outbreak sites during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006. Prev Vet Med. 87(1-2):64-73.

- Maan S., Maan NS, Ross-smith N, Batten CA, Shawa AE, Anthony SJ, Samuel AR, Darpel KE, Veronesi E, Oura CAL, Singh KP, Nomikou K, Potgieter AC, Attoui H, van Rooij E, van Rijn P, De Clercq K, Vandenbussche F, Zientara S, Bréard E, Sailleau C, Beer M, Hoffman B, Mellor PS, Mertens PPC. (2008). Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains. Virology, 377:308-318.

- Makoschey B, Beer M, Zientara S, Haubruge E, Rinaldi L, Dercksen D, Millemann Y, von Rijn P, de Clercq K, Oura C, Saegerman C, Domingo M, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Mehlhorn H, Tamba M, Thiry E. (2008). Bluetongue control--a new challenge for Europe. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 121(7-8):306-313.

- Mintiens K, Méroc E, Mellor PS, Staubach C, Gerbier G, Elbers AR, Hendrickx G, De Clercq K. (2008). Possible routes of introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into the epicentre of the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe. Prev Vet Med. 87(1-2):131-144.

- Mintiens K, Méroc E, Faes C, Abrahantes JC, Hendrickx G, Staubach C, Gerbier G, Elbers AR, Aerts M, De Clercq K. (2008). Impact of human interventions on the spread of bluetongue virus serotype 8 during the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 87(1-2):145-61.

2007

- Toussaint JF, Sailleau C, Breard E, Zientara S, De Clercq K. (2007a). Bluetongue virus detection by two real-time RT-qPCRs targeting two different genomic segments. J Virol Methods 140(1-2):115-123.

- Toussaint J-F, Sailleau C, Mast J, Houdart P, Czaplicki G, Demeestere L, VandenBussche F, Van Dessel W, Goris N, Bréard E, Bounaadja L, Thiry E, Zientara S, and De Clercq K. (2007b). Bluetongue in Belgium, 2006. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13, 614-616.

- Maan S., Maan NS, Ross-smith N, Batten CA, Shawa AE, Anthony SJ, Samuel AR, Darpel KE, Veronesi E, Oura CAL, Singh KP, Nomikou K, Potgieter AC, Attoui H, van Rooij E, van Rijn P, De Clercq K, Vandenbussche F, Zientara S, Bréard E, Sailleau C, Beer M, Hoffman B, Mellor PS, Mertens PPC. (2008). Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains. Virology, 377:308-318.

- Makoschey B, Beer M, Zientara S, Haubruge E, Rinaldi L, Dercksen D, Millemann Y, von Rijn P, de Clercq K, Oura C, Saegerman C, Domingo M, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Mehlhorn H, Tamba M, Thiry E. (2008). Bluetongue control--a new challenge for Europe. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 121(7-8):306-313.

- Mintiens K, Méroc E, Mellor PS, Staubach C, Gerbier G, Elbers AR, Hendrickx G, De Clercq K. (2008). Possible routes of introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into the epicentre of the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe. Prev Vet Med. 87(1-2):131-144.

- Mintiens K, Méroc E, Faes C, Abrahantes JC, Hendrickx G, Staubach C, Gerbier G, Elbers AR, Aerts M, De Clercq K. (2008). Impact of human interventions on the spread of bluetongue virus serotype 8 during the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 87(1-2):145-61.

2006

- Toussaint JF, Kerkhofs P, De Clercq K. (2006). Influence des changements climatiques globaux sur la progression des arboviroses, Ann. Med. Vet., 150 (1), 56-63